In-depth interpretation of CIP and SIP
In the beverage processing enterprise production line often encountered CIP, sip these two English abbreviations, reflected in many devices, document reports, work communication. Many times the CIP is called cleaning, and sip is called disinfection or sterilization
Source: Food Development and production
China Beverage Industry Network
Many devices will have the word cleaning, often referred to as CIP, the same device will have disinfection or sterilization of the word, usually refers to sip. Cleaning, disinfection or sterilization is a very broad concept, so to understand that CIP is a form of cleaning, the same SIP disinfection or sterilization of a form.
CIP (cleaning in place)，CIP system is widely used in a variety of beverage (milk beverage, fruit and vegetable juice beverage, fruit grain beverage, tea drink), liquid milk, yogurt, alcohol and other high mechanization of food enterprises. In fact, the internal cleaning of the production equipment, such as inside the pipe, inside the cylinder body.
SIP(sanitizing in place)，SIP system is also widely used in beverage, liquid milk, yogurt and other high mechanization of food enterprises. In fact, disinfection or sterilization inside the equipment, such as inside the pipe, inside the cylinder body.
The purpose of CIP
The purpose of CIP cleaning is as follows:
1.Remove food or food residue that provides nutrients to microorganisms;
2.To remove various microorganisms (CIP washing can remove many microorganisms);
3.Remove all kinds of foreign bodies, particles and solution residues in layers.
The CIP process
Industry insiders usually talk about three-step CIP and five-step CIP, so it can be said that CIP is divided into two forms.Some people actually say there are three or more forms, and I'll explain that here.First, the common three - step CIP and five - step CIP.
Three-step CIP process:
① Pre-water flushing
② Alkali Wash
③ Final water Flushing
Five-Step CIP process:
1.Rinse with water in advance
2.the alkaline cleaning
3.Rinse with medium water
5.Rinse with water
Some people say there is this kind of cleaning process, seven steps CIP, the process is as follows:
1.Rinse with water in advance
2.the alkaline cleaning
3.Rinse with medium water
5.Rinse with middle water
7.Final flush with water
This is an inappropriate classification or name; step 6 should start with SIP.However, some equipment manufacturers in the actual production of CIP system when the sixth and seventh steps to the CIP process.
In addition, for the caustic washing and pickling in the three-step CIP and five parts of CIP, if it is conscious and necessary to increase the concentration of alkali and acid, this cleaning can be called intensive washing, which has been classified as a form of CIP.
The simplest CIP is simply a single step of water flushing.In some cases you don't need a base or an acid to clean it, you just use water, and that's the simplest form of CIP.
Advantages of CIP
CIP system can:
Ensure certain cleaning effect and improve product safety;
Save time and improve efficiency;
High degree of automation, saving operating labor;
High safety operation.
Influence factors of CIP
The higher the concentration, the better the cleaning effect.Generally speaking, the higher the concentration, the more molecules per volume of cleaning fluid, and the more opportunities to react with dirt, the better the cleaning effect.However, cost, time, equipment and other issues should be taken into account and the concentration cannot be increased indefinitely.The cost is naturally high due to the high concentration, which also causes damage to the equipment. There are also cleaning agents with large concentration, leading to longer water flushing time. Clearly, cleaning agents cannot be left in the equipment after use, so they must be washed and cleaned.
The higher the temperature, the better the cleaning effect.The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules move, the more contact with dirt, the faster the action, and the better the cleaning effect.The same temperature should not be too high, too high temperature energy consumption, high cost, and too high temperature leads to unstable properties of cleaning agent, reducing the cleaning effect.
The longer the time, the better the cleaning effect.The longer the cleaning time, the more contact opportunities between chemical molecules and dirt, and the longer the reaction time, the better the cleaning effect.The same time also cannot be too long, wash fluid and dirt sufficient reaction can, too much time is not necessary, consider the problem of productivity even additionally.
(4) mechanical force
The greater the flushing force, the better the natural effect, but the excessive mechanical force affects the stability of the mechanical action of the production line and may form foam.Therefore, the average pipe diameter is no more than 80mm, the flow rate is no more than 1.5m/s, the pipe diameter is no more than 80mm, and the flow rate is no less than 2.5m/s.The flow rate is also related to the design and construction of the production line.
Commonly used cleaning agents are sodium hydroxide and nitric acid.In actual production more use compound cleaner, be in caustic wash besides have sodium hydroxide to still add other cleaner, pickling also is such.For example, adding surfactants, chelators, dispersants, suspending agents, antifoaming agents, etc., such complex detergents are much more effective than simply using sodium hydroxide or nitric acid.Surfactants can reduce the surface tension of water to infiltrate the cleaning fluid into a smaller area. Chelating agents can remove metal ions, chelating agents and dispersants can prevent the formation of scale deposition, and suspending agents can provide the suspension capacity for insoluble dirt, which is conducive to flushing, antifoaming agents to prevent the formation of foam and improve cleaning efficiency.
Alkaline washing can remove fat, dissolve protein, dissolve most carbides dirt and produce soluble salt through saponification reaction.
The water used for making CIP has soft water or RO water.RO is short for reverse osmosis.The production cost of softened water is lower than that of RO water. Enterprises usually use soft water for cleaning, but if local water quality is poor, such as high alkalinity, RO water will be used for CIP.
Don't underestimate the function of water when cleaning, it can dissolve most dirt, carbohydrate, protein (protein as organic macromolecular macromolecular compound, exists in water as dispersive state (gum posture)), although the effect of dissolving grease is poor, it is not useless.
Attention, even if is the concentration of the commonly used in production, to the food of the pipeline connecting sealing ring will have certain corrosion effect, use some time after the change should be inspected regularly, especially for aseptic equipment, after the SIP achieve aseptic condition has been to complete the production, this paragraph of time can't have any leakage, otherwise the risk and raise the cost of control.
(6)Design and construction of production equipment
Internal surface of equipment.The rougher the inner surface is, the more difficult it is to clean, so the inner wall of the equipment must be polished. Measured by the roughness of Ra surface, this value is smaller and more smooth.The outer surface Ra is less than or equal to 2.5 wm, which can actually be done as required.Countries in this respect have requirements, you can refer to, for example, "QB/T 2467-1999 food industrial stainless steel pipe" (the 1999 edition of the obsolete, 1999 version of the effect on July 1, 2017 online search less than text temporarily) requires the finish of Ra (including 1.0 m or less, pipe and the inner wall of the cylinder block is processed, the GB/T 24571-2009 PET aseptic cold filling production line "valves containers, surface roughness Ra (including 1.6 m or less.
Validation of CIP Cleaning effect
1.To verify residue of cleaning agent
The commonly used cleaning agents for CIP are food-grade alkali and food-grade acid. The ingredient of this alkali is mainly sodium hydroxide, and the ingredient of this acid is mainly nitric acid.The final water washing for CIP must be washed out of the cleaning agent and no residue.This is similar to washing dishes with dishwashing detergent and washing off with water, because residual detergent or detergent is harmful to human health.
How to decide cleaner remains?Since it is water washing equipment, the water entering the equipment and the water coming out of the equipment show the same chemical properties, so it can be judged that there is no detergent residue, because the water entering the equipment has no detergent, and the chemical properties of the water containing detergent are definitely changed.The PH of water is usually tested to determine if there is any detergent residue.The water that is ready to enter the equipment for cleaning and the water that comes out of the equipment will be judged to be free of residues when the result is consistent in detecting PH. For example, some enterprises require PH changes within 0.2 range, while others require 0.3.
2.Primary test sense
Smell.The smell of the final cleaning water shall be fresh and odor-free, and shall not affect the quality of the final product.
Vision.The inside surface of the cleaned equipment is clean without any dirt which should not be left, such as the residue of cleaning agent, liquid, and foreign matters and impurities.
Health.Wipe the inner surface of the device with a finger or swab (medical swab) without stain or discoloration.
Microorganisms.Detect microorganisms in the final rinse water, usually for colonies, molds, and yeasts.
Purpose of SIP
As much as possible to kill microorganisms, note that the SIP is for microorganisms.
The medium of SIP can be hot water, steam, disinfectant, etc.Many beverage enterprises use SIP with hot water and steam medium, hot water is used in the pipe, steam or hot water is used in the cylinder.Especially for aseptic equipment it must be made with hot water and steam.Non-sterile equipment USES hot water and steam most of the time, and disinfectant is sometimes used.
The hot water and steam used for SIP must be prepared with RO water.Because RO water is very pure water, no impurities, foreign bodies, very little salt, very suitable for SIP.
Process of SIP
Beverage enterprises usually use hot water and steam for SIP. The steps are as follows:
(1).To the desired temperature;
(2) thermal insulation.Maintain a certain time after reaching the required temperature;
Influence factors of SIP effect
What SIP does is kill as many microorganisms as possible, so the factors that affect the effect of SIP are temperature and time.If it is sterile equipment, must be 121 ℃ or higher, time or 20 min.Some can reach 135 ℃, 30 min.Sterile equipment, if not do SIP temperature without above 100 ℃, general requirements above 80 ℃.In practice, the enterprise sets the parameter requirements according to its own needs.
SIP Effect Validation
Since the purpose of SIP is to kill as many microorganisms as possible, the validation of the effect is the microbial residue on the inside surface of the SIP device.In the case of aseptic equipment, the SIP must be in a aseptic state. In this case, asepsis means commercial asepsis, not absolute asepsis, usually referred to as asepsis.Aseptic sampling valve will be left when the equipment supplier designs and manufactures aseptic equipment. The residual water in the SIP equipment can be obtained through the aseptic sampler docked with the aseptic sampling valve to detect microorganisms. However, some equipment is not designed for this purpose.
Why first CIP after SIP?
Usually CIP and SIP are used together, and if they are used together, they must be first CIP and then SIP.In some cases, SIP is used directly because you have been doing CIP for a while, and then you use SIP instead of using CIP and then using SIP.
Why does it have to be CIP before SIP?It is easy to understand that, for example, in restaurants and hotels in public places, tableware is first cleaned and then put into disinfectant cabinets.Let me make a detailed explanation from a professional perspective.
The purpose of CIP before SIP
Any residue of dirt can affect the chemical and physical efficacy of disinfectant, as well as the killing of microorganisms by hot water and steam.
The disinfectant may be concealed in dirt, making the disinfectant unable to function directly.
Incomplete washing may cause problems with microbial resistance;
Incomplete cleaning, residual dirt residue. When making SIP, disinfectant, hot water or steam will change the residue into particles, impurities and sticky on the inner surface of the equipment, which may be introduced into food and become a foreign body.